Work packages

TransSOL comprised six research-based work packages:

  1. The legal, political and socio-economic context of transnational solidarity

Work package 1 assembled a comparative data set and develop a report on the institutional, legal, political and socio-economic situation in the eight countries under analysis. The aim was to unveil whether and to what extent the national context in its various traits has a beneficial or inhibiting impact on solidarity. This enabled us to understand better the cross-national variations of European solidarity at the levels of individual citizens, organisations and public discourses. In particular, this work package put its focus on the performance of EU and national legislation, case law and policies in reaction to the crisis. It thus studied the direct and indirect effects of the legal and political context on European solidarity. Here, special attention was placed on the fields of unemployment, immigration and asylum, and disabilities. For further information, please refer to the following outputs:

  1. Innovative practices of transnational solidarity at times of crisis

Work package 2 produced a comparative data set and mapped innovative forms of transnational solidarity in times of crisis. This work package was devoted to monitoring, analysing and assessing innovative practices of solidarity in response to crisis, such as citizens’ initiatives and networks of cooperation amongst civil society actors. Again, a strong focus was on the fields of unemployment, immigration and asylum, and disabilities. Going beyond the mapping and analysis of existing practices, we liaised with the individual and collective actors engaged in these initiatives in order to promote knowledge exchange and deliberation about the crisis’s implications for European solidarity. On these bases, we  developed a list of best practices and draft policy implications for the local, national and European levels. For further information, please see:

  1. Individual forms of solidarity at times of crisis

Work package 3 was dedicated to the comparative assessment of individual solidarity across the eight countries under analysis. In this work package, we conducted an online population survey aiming to measure the extent and forms of individual European solidarity, with regard to both attitudes and behaviours. Moreover, the survey was geared towards identifying the socio-demographic factors affecting or mediating dispositions and acts of solidarity. Thus, we analysed how transnational solidarity is conditioned by individuals’ socio-economic and professional statuses, political attitudes and behaviours, social relations and networks, lifestyle patterns, and feelings of well-being and belonging. Additionally, a particular focus was set on citizens’ views about the role and responsibilities of the EU and its member states in relation to European solidarity. For further information, please consult:

  1. Collective forms of solidarity at times of crisis

Work package 4 examined the organisational forms of European solidarity. Here, particular attention was placed on the fields of immigration and asylum, unemployment and disability. The aim was to map and survey the organisational field of civil society associations promoting and organising transnational solidarity. Moreover, this work package sought to provide a better understanding of the main conditions and constraints, structures and dynamics of organised forms of European solidarity. Finally, we engaged in a comparative analysis across countries and issue fields, aiming to identify the lessons to be learned about European civil society, practical tools and potential policy recommendations. Read more about the result of WP4 in the following TransSOL outputs:

  1. Transnational solidarity and collective identities in the public sphere

Work package 5 was devoted to the assessment and cross-country comparison of European solidarity in the public sphere. Here, the aim was to study public claims-making and the underlying ideas and norms of solidarity discussed in the mainstream mass media and online media. In particular, we sought to identify the extent to which European solidarity is granted public awareness and recognition, and what claims on behalf of or against European solidarity are made, and by whom. Moreover, we aimed to understand the discursive construction, reproduction or corrosion of European solidarity in all its contentiousness. Finally, we wished to show how claims and discourses about European solidarity are related to debates about European identities and cultures, and what effects contentions between various allegiances have. Findings helped to better understand if and to what extent public discourses, collective images and public opinions might have an inhibiting or beneficial impact on transnational solidarity at the individual and organisational levels. Results of this WP are discussed in:

  1. Pilot study: Identifying and developing appealing, effective and sustainable practices for transnational solidarity

Work package 6 consisted of a pilot study on innovative and alternative initiatives for European solidarity at times of crisis. Its aim was to produce a catalogue of best practices and a Guide to Transnational Solidarity. To this end, we identified and systematically evaluated initiatives and projects that were particularly successful and apt to work as benchmarks, exploring their strengths and weaknesses. Based on the lessons drawn from these cases and the other work-packages, we develop evidence-based, scientifically informed, application-oriented role models, generalised guidelines and practical recommendations. We put these findings at the disposal of individual citizens, civil society organisations and public authorities in order to strengthen existing practices of European solidarity in line with their needs and aims. Please consult the following TransSOL outputs for more information on the results of this WP: